Studies Part 3 - Cannabis Helps Those With Parkinson’s Disease.

Photo Credit: Padsbrother (https://bit.ly/2W1mdDU)

Photo Credit: Padsbrother (https://bit.ly/2W1mdDU)

In today’s post, we’ll look at a study in which cannabis was found effective in managing the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. In the pilot study from Tel Aviv University in Isreal, which was published in Clinical Neuropharmacology, 40 Parkinson’s disease patients smoked cannabis for an average of 19 months. Of those patients, 82% found the medication improved symptoms through pain relief, reduced tremors, attenuated muscle stiffness, and sleep improvements. Additionally, 75% found it improved their mood. It’s thought cannabis may activate receptors in the substantia nigra region of the brain, where brain cells are destroyed by the condition. Through activating these receptors, cannabis might help manage cognitive impairment, mobility difficulties, and tremors. Cannabis produced only minor side effects.

This information has been provided by Leafly and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

What Are The Medical Benefits of CBD? - Part 1

Photo Credit: NeedPix (https://bit.ly/2XK0i4H)

Photo Credit: NeedPix (https://bit.ly/2XK0i4H)

As legalization proceeds and barriers to medical marijuana research are knocked down, we are becoming more aware of just how powerful wide-reaching medical marijuana is. One of the cannabinoids getting the most attention is cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that can help a myriad of conditions. In this series, we will discuss some of the many conditions CBD can treat.

Numerous studies have suggested CBD can reduce anxious feelings in those with anxiety disorders, and that it can effectively treated a variety of anxiety disorders, including OCD, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, PTSD, and social anxiety disorder. Studies also suggest CBD could benefit those who suffer from depression. Animal studies have shown CBD acts on the serotonin pathways in the brain, allowing it to act as an antidepressant, and one study found CBD reduces anhedonia, which is a symptom of depression that prevents people from feeling joy or happiness. CBD can also stop nausea and vomiting. One study found CBD effectively helped treat nausea in patients who did not get relief from traditional treatments. CBD may also help those with diabetes, and animal studies have found the cannabinoid slows the progression of diabetes and diabetic inflammations, as well as benefit complications associated with diabetes. CBD may also protect against diabetes, and one study found CBD prevented at-risk mice from developing the condition.

Perhaps the most well-known success story for CBD is its ability to treat epilepsy. CBD has acted as an anticonvulsant in animal models, and GW Pharmaceuticals have been testing their CBD oil Epidiolex with success. In the study, 25 and 50 mg/kg a day lowered seizure frequency by half while producing few mild side effects. Additionally, a 2013 survey of parents of children with treatment-resistant epilepsy found 84% reported reduced seizure frequency with CBD use. Lastly, and contrary to previous beliefs, CBD may treat schizophrenia and mental illnesses related to psychosis. It has been found to be as effective as antipsychotics with fewer side effects, and scientists believe this could be attributed to the stimulation of anandamide production. One study found CBD helped with hallucinations, delusions, lack of emotion, and reduced social functioning. CBD can also benefit those with Parkinson’s disease, and various studies have found CBD can help treat the sleep disturbances and psychosis associated with the disorder without worsening motor symptoms and while improving overall quality of life.

This information has been provided by Leaf Science and approved by our Chief Medical Officer. In tomorrow’s post, we will continue to discuss some of the conditions CBD is able to treat.

CBD and Parkinson's Disease

Photo Credit: Flickr (https://bit.ly/2W1mdDU).

Photo Credit: Flickr (https://bit.ly/2W1mdDU).

Research suggests the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) may have the ability to treat symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease because of its neuroprotective and antipsychotic effects. It may also be able to help improve symptoms that interfere with sleep. One study from 2005 found CBD had neuroprotective benefits in animal models of Parkinson’s. The study believed these effects may be the result of CBD’s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Through the studies, researchers suggested CBD could protect brains from progressive dopamine neuron loss. In 2007, the same researchers found CBD was most effective at protecting neurons if administered immediately after exposure to toxins.

Other studies have found CBD can improve movement impairments, psychosis, sleep disturbances, and quality of life for those with Parkinson’s disease. A study from 2017 found CBD improved movement impairments through blocking the receptor known as GPR6, which allows dopamine levels to increase. A 2009 trial published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology found six patients with Parkinson’s who were given 150 mg/day of CBD for four weeks exhibited remarkable improvements in their psychotic symptoms. The cannabinoid was also safe and well-tolerated. Another trial from 2014 which involved 21 patients found CBD improved quality of life, likely due to the cannabinoid’s antidepressant, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, and sedative effects. A series of case studies found daily doses of 75-300 mg CBD could reduce or eliminate REM sleep behavior disorder in patients.

THC may also help patients with Parkinson’s disease, and one study from 2014 found it improved movement dysfunction and overall movement deficiencies like tremor, rigidity, and slowed movements. It also helped with sleep disturbances and pain. THC on its own is a psychoactive cannabinoid, and can produce paranoia, anxiety, panic attacks, and increase heart rate which could lead to heart attack. So, the cannabinoid alone may not be the preferred cannabinoid for many patients. That said, using a combination of THC and CBD may be appropriate for those users who want the ultimate relief, as CBD buffers against the effects of THC and the two together can provide benefits and can target a wider range of symptoms.

This information has been provided by Leaf Science and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

Parkinson’s Patients Report Long-Term Benefits from Medical Marijuana

Photo Credit:  Sonya Yruel/Drug Policy Alliance

Photo Credit: Sonya Yruel/Drug Policy Alliance

Researchers from Tel Aviv University in Israel have found patients with Parkinson’s disease who use medical marijuana daily may experience long-term therapeutic. The retrospective assessment, which was published in Clinical Neuropharmacology, assessed the effects of daily cannabis use over the course of several months in 47 patients who suffered from the condition. Eighty-two percent of the patients experienced improved overall symptoms, specifically regarding reductions in pain, stiffness, tremors, and the likelihood of falling, while also experiencing improvements in mood and quality of sleep. Authors write, “[T]he results of our study demonstrate that most of the users had found MC (medical cannabis) to improve their condition, and that MC treatment was safe, without major side effects.”

This information has been provided by the Daily Chronic and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

What Are The Medical Benefits of Marijuana? - Part 2.

Photo Credits: Leaf Science

Photo Credits: Leaf Science

In our previous post, we began to look at the conditions medical marijuana can help, but it doesn’t end there! Let’s continue that discussion now.

Medical marijuana may help those with inflammatory bowel disease, including conditions like Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. Marijuana may improve symptoms to the point of remission and can help patients ween off of traditional medications. Marijuana may also help those with Parkinson’s disease, and patients have experienced relief from tremor severity and pain symptoms. Surprisingly, marijuana may also help those with asthma. Because THC acts as a bronchodilator, it opens up the pathways of the lungs, reduces spasms, and prevents over-inflation of the lungs. Not surprisingly, marijuana is known to stimulate appetite, which can be extremely beneficial for patients suffering from conditions like AIDS and cancer, where appetite loss is a common symptom of the conditions and side effect of the disorders’ treatments. On the other hand, marijuana can also help combat obesity. Although it is able to increase appetite, marijuana is still associated with a smaller waistline and lower cholesterol in users than in non-users, and it has been found to better manage glucose levels.

As mentioned in the previous post in relation to cancer, medical marijuana is effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting, and it can be so effective at treating this common side effect associated with chemotherapy and HIV/AIDS treatment regimens that it can allow patients to continue with these unpleasant treatments. Medical marijuana can also improved the recovery and survival rates of patients with traumatic brain injury. Similarly, researchers believe phytocannabinoids or synthetic cannabinoids could improve the outcomes of spinal cord injury, as well, due to the fact they have observed increases in the body’s natural endocannabinoid production following injury in an attempt to prevent damage.

Thanks for following up with today’s post on the medical benefits of medical marijuana. Still, there are so many more conditions where medical marijuana is useful! We’ll continue our discussion of more conditions in the next post. This information has been provided by Leaf Science and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s Patients Find Relief in Medical Marijuana

Photo Credit: The Daily Chronic

Photo Credit: The Daily Chronic

According to a report published in the journal Complementary Therapies in Medicine, patients who suffer from Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis may find relief in medical marijuana. The Michael J. Fox Foundation and the National Multiple Sclerosis Society hosted an online questionnaire in which 595 subjects responded, of which respondents claimed cannabis was effective at symptom management (6.4 on a scale from 0-7), and 59% said they were able to reduce their use of prescription medications. Respondents who identified as medical marijuana users reported lower levels of disability in memory, mood, and fatigue, when compared to non-users. This report supports the findings of previous placebo-controlled clinical trials in which cannabis effectively managed the symptoms of MS patients.

This information has been provided by the Daily Chronic and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

CBD Improves Quality of Life Measures in Parkinson's Disease Patients, Trial Finds

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

A new study published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology has determined patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease may be able to improve their quality of life and overall well-being with the use of CBD. The double-blind clinical trial, which was conducted by researchers at Brazil’s University of São Paulo, involved 21 patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease without demential or comorbid psychiatric conditions. The patients were separated into three groups, and then given either placebo, 75mg CBD, or 300 mg CBD over the course of six weeks. At five weeks in, researchers tested for motor and general symptoms, well-being and quality of life, and neuroprotective effects. To measure well-being and quality of life, researchers provided patients with the Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire, which considers mobility, activities of daily living, emotional well-being, stigma, social support, cognition, communication, and bodily discomfort.

Those receiving the more potent dose displayed significant improvements in quality of life and well-being. There were no major differences in motor symptoms and neuroprotective effects between the different groups after 6 weeks, but researcher explained this may be attributed to the small sample size, the short duration of the study, or the fact that many patients were in the early stages of the disease and so had low baseline scores. The study concludes, “Nowadays, most drugs used in the treatment of [Parkinson’s disease] act in the dopaminergic system and little is known about the role of other neurotransmitter systems in the disease… The endocannabinoid system seems to be an important target of investigation, mostly because of its action in those considered as the non-motor symptoms of [Parkinson’s disease and of reports of its possible neuroprotective effects.”

This information has been provided by Medical Marijuana Inc. and approved by our Chief Medical Officer. You can also access the study here.

Evidence Shows CBD Beneficial for Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, and Multiple Sclerosis

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

According to new research conducted by a team of Italian researchers and published in CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets, CBD can provide neuroprotection for patients diagnosed with neurological disorders. In the study, researchers looked through laboratory and clinical findings referencing CBD’s effects on neurological conditions, and while more research is left to be desired, they determined, “Pre-clinical evidence largely shows that CBD can produce beneficial effects in [Alzheimer’s disease], [Parkinson’s disease], and [multiple sclerosis] patients, but its employment for these disorders needs further confirmation from well designed clinical studies.” The review only searched through studies involving CBD alone.

This information supports previous studies that suggest CBD has neuroprotective properties that can inhibit the progression of neurological disorders. Additionally, researchers found pre-clinical evidence suggesting CBD has antiepileptic properties and can be effective and beneficial for those diagnosed with treatment-resistant seizure disorders.

This information has been provided by Medical Marijuana Inc. and approved by our Chief Medical Officer. You can also access the review here.

Cannabis Has Positive Impacts on People With Parkinson's Disease and Multiple Sclerosis, Study Shows

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

A new study conducted by researcher at Colorado State University suggests cannabis may be able to help manage some of the symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease, including symptoms pertaining to mood, memory, fatigue, and obesity. The study, which was published in Complementary Therapies in Medicine, involved 595 participants, of which 76% were Parkinson’s disease patients and 24% were multiple sclerosis patients. Over 40% of users were currently treating their symptoms with cannabis, and reported cannabis symptom management efficacy around 6.4 on a scale from 0 to 7. Users reported lower levels of neurological dysfunction and lower levels of disability, specifically in relation to mood, memory, and fatigue. Additionally, 59% said they could reduce their use of prescription medications. Participants were overall younger and less likely to be obese. On the downside, patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis may experience negative impacts on balance.

The researchers used anonymous web-based surveys collecting demographic and cannabis consumption behavioral data, along with information regarding participants’ neurological function, fatigue, balance, and physical activation participation. to compare self-reported assessments of neurological disability among current cannabis users and non-users. They concluded, “Cannabis may have positive impacts on mood, memory, fatigue, and obesity status in people with [Parkinson’s disease] and [multiple sclerosis.” This study supports previously findings that suggest cannabis and cannabinoids help improve symptoms and inhibit progression of both neurological disorders. Still, researchers would like to see more in depth research surrounding the use of cannabis for multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease.

This information has been provided by Medical Marijuana Inc. and approved by our Chief Medical Officer. You can also learn more about the study here.

Cannabinoids Stimulate Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects That Are Beneficial For Treating Parkinson's Disease, Study Finds

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

A new animal trial published in Frontiers in Neuroscience suggests cannabinoids may elicit significant neuroprotection that could inhibit Parkinson’s disease. Researchers from the United Arab Emirates University used six to seven month old rats that had been induced with Parkinson’s, and in one group, administered 50 mg/kg of β-caryophyllene (BCP) daily for four weeks before examining their brains. They found that BCP effectively upregulated the expression of CB2 receptors in comparison with the control group, and produced anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that help to prevent neurodegeneration. They found that their activation reduced the loss of dopamine-producing neurons and the oxidative stress biomarker malondialdehyde, thus preventing a drop in the antioxidant glutathione. Additionally, CB2 activation augmented the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, which alleviated the Parkinson’s disease-induced glial cell activation in the striatum.

Researchers concluded, “Taken together, the abrogation of the protective effects… demonstrates the CB2 receptor-dependent mechanism of BCP and the findings can be extrapolated to the neuroprotective properties of CB2 agonism in PD.” These results support the findings of previous studies that have found cannabinoids offer neuroprotection that could benefit Parkinson’s disease. The researchers explain, “In recent years, the cannabinoid receptors, specifically activating CB2 receptors, appear to represent a novel therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases, including [Parkinson’s disease], because of their role in counteracting oxidative stress and inflammation… The CB2 receptors have recently emerged as a potential anti-inflammatory target, to break the self-sustaining cycle of neuroinflammation and preserve neuronal homeostasis, and survival in neurodegenerative disorders.”

This information has been provided by Medical Marijuana Inc. and approved by our Chief Medical Officer. You can also find the full text of the study here.

Study: Cannabis Encourages Mitochondrial Function to Inhibit Parkinson's Disease

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

A new preclinical study suggests THC may induce mitochondrial biogenesis, an effect that could slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease. In the study, which was published in Oncotarget, researchers from Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry looked at the neuroprotective properties of THC when administered to human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell models. Their findings suggest THC interacts with proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), or the glitazone receptor, to elicit a chemical reaction that induces mitochondrial biogenesis, restores mitochondrial content, and therefore offers neuroprotection. The researchers even determined THC offered greater neuroprotection than the commonly known PPARγ agonist pioglitazone, which has been known to offer neuroprotective benefits in both animal and cell culture studies of Parkinson’s disease. THC even induced mitochondiral biogensis to reverse deficits, something pioglitazone has not been found to do. This may be because the neuroprotection offered by both compounds are elicited via different pathways. The two compounds offered the greatest neuroprotective effects and greatly reduced neuronal death when working in tandem with each other.

Researchers concluded, “Our data indicate that rather than reducing oxidative stress by PPARγ-regulated expression… THC induces PPARγ-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis whilst pioglitazone, whose protective effect is most likely only partially driven by PPARγ, does not. Indeed our data suggest that Δ9-THC can add to the neuroprotective effect of pioglitazone… THC is generally well tolerated by [Parkinson’s disease] patients and may therefore represent an alternative worthy of consideration… Furthermore, the ability of Δ9-THC to induce mitochondrial biogenesis is interesting as decreased mitochondrial content has been associated with familial as well as sporadic cases of [Parkinson’s disease].”

This information has been provided by Medical Marijuana Inc. and approved by our Chief Medical Officer. You can also find the entire study here.

Cannabinoids Possess Potential Therapeutic Benefits for Treating Parkinson's Disease, Study Concludes

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

According to a new study published in Molecular Neurodegeneration, medicines derived from cannabis may be able to offer neuroprotection and improve motor symptoms for patient’s suffering from Parkinson’s disease. In the research review, researchers from Konkuk University in South Korea looked through information regarding cannabinoids and Parkinson’s disease, and found evidence that cannabinoids supported neuronal survival and offered neuroprotection through their interactions with the endocannabinoid system’s cannabinoids receptors in the basal ganglia. They were able to do so by stimulating reductions in oxidative injury, excitotoxicity, and calcium influx, and through decreasing inflammation. Additionally, there was evidence cannabinoids helped with neurogenesis, or the generation of new brain neurons. These conclusions have also been determined in small number of preclinical and clinical trials, in which cannabis alleviated the motor dysfunction symptoms that accompany Parkinson’s disease.

Researchers concluded, “Numerous investigations have supported the observation that significant modulation of the cannabinoid signaling system occurs in [Parkinson’s disease]… Therefore, pharmacological modulation of this this system with compounds that selectively target different elements of cannabinoid signaling may improve anomalies of motor behavior and provide neuroprotection.” Researchers added that of all existing Parkinson’s therapies, none alleviate motor disabilities while also supporting neuroprotection. Still, there is a need for more sufficient trials due to the fact most trials have been small scale or pertaining to animal models.

This information has been provided by Medical Marijuana Inc. and approved by our Chief Medical Officer. You can also access the research review here.

Parkinson's Disease Patients Find Cannabis Among Most Beneficial of All Alternative Treatments, Study Finds

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

When it comes to alternative and complementary treatment options, patients suffering from Parkinson’s Disease ranked medical cannabis as the most beneficial for symptom management. Researchers from the University of Denver Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado Denver, and the University of Northern Colorado analyzed responses from self-administered surveys completed by 207 Parkinson’s patients between 2012 and 2013 and published their findings in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. In the survey, 52% of patients reported past or current use of complementary and alternative medicine modalities (CAM). Unfortunately, only 4.3% of those respondents reported using cannabis, but it was still ranked among the most effective of all options. Nine of the 207 patients used cannabis, but five of them said it significantly improved their symptoms without worsening their symptoms or producing negative side effects.

The most commonly used CAM treatments were vitamins, followed by prayer, massage, and relaxation techniques. Cannabis was found to be effective along with massage, art, music, and meditation. Authors explained, “While only a small number of participants in our study reported use of cannabis for PD, those that did reported benefits in mood (56%), sleep (56%), motor symptoms (22%), and quality of life (22%).”

This information has been provided by Medical Marijuana Inc. and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

Review Finds Evidence of Cannabis Being Effective for Treating Parkinson's Disease

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

Scientists from the Touro College of Pharmacy have found evidence that cannabis’ anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties may be able to reduce the tremors associated with Parkinson’s disease and slow the development of the disease. In the research review, which was published in the journal Parkinson’s Disease, researchers looked through literature surrounding the effects of cannabinoids on Parkinson’s disease, and found evidence that cannabinoids bind directly with dopamine receptors, which in turn reduces the effects of low dopamine levels and allows for better management of motor-related symptoms. The researchers also found evidence that cannabis benefits the non-motor symptoms associated with the disease, like pain, insomnia and depression. Even more interesting is the evidence suggesting cannabinoids bind with cannabinoid receptors to produce anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that prolong the health of neurons and therefore delay the disease’s progression.

This information has been provided by Medical Marijuana Inc. and approved by our Chief Medical Officer. You can also find the full study here.

Influencing the Endocannabinoid System Beneficial for Parkinson's Disease

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

A recent review published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research suggests interaction with the endocannabinoid system could help manage symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease. Researchers from the Department of Systems Medicine at Rome's Tor Vergata University looked at preclinical and clinical studies on cannabinoid therapies and Parkinson's disease. They found that activating cannabinoid receptors successfully modulated the release of dopamine, and improved motor impairment. Two survey's involving patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease found smoking marijuana reduced tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, pain, and improved sleep. CBD was also found to have helped reduce psychosis related to Parkinson's disease. Additionally, a study conducted at the Tel Aviv University and Rabin Medical Center found cannabis reduced motor symptoms and pain in Parkinson's disease patients. 

While this information is positive, more research is left to be desired due to small sample sizes, expectancy biases, and the absence of standardized outcomes. This information has been provided by Medical Marijuana Inc. and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.  

Study: Cannabis Inhalation Improves Parkinson’s Symptoms

Clinical data published in the European Journal of Pain suggests inhaling cannabis may improve symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease. Investigators from Tel Aviv University and the Rabin Medical Center in Israel looked at how exposure to cannabis affected motor symptoms and pain parameters in patients who suffered from Parkinson's. Then found cannabis inhalation improved symptoms within 30 minutes of administration. These findings are consistent with previous Israeli trials in which patients reported "significant improvement after treatment in tremor, rigidity, and bradykinsea (slowness of movement) … [as well as] significant improvement of sleep and pain scores." 

This information has been provided by the Daily Chronic and approved by our Chief Medical Officer. You can also find an abstract of the study here.

Study: Cannabis Inhalation Improves Parkinson’s Symptoms

Photo Credit: NORML

Photo Credit: NORML

Clinical data published in the European Journal of Pain suggests cannabis inhalation improves the associated symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Investigators from Tel Aviv University and the Rabin Medical Center in Israel surveyed the impact of cannabis exposure on motor symptoms and pain parameters for patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. They found cannabis inhalation improved symptoms 30 minutes after use, saying, "cannabis improved motor scores and pain symptoms in PD patients." Other trials have produced similar results, and of Israeli Parkinson's patients who receive medical cannabis for their symptoms, 90% have reported improvements in their motor function and pain. 

This information has been provided by NORML and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

Study: Cannabidiol May Improve Sleep In Parkinson’s Disease

Photo Credit: Ian MacKenzie/Flickr

Photo Credit: Ian MacKenzie/Flickr

A new study published in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics suggests cannabidiol (CBD) may help ease sleep problems in Parkinson's disease patients. In the six week study at the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil, four patients suffering from Parkinson's disease who also exhibited symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder received CBD. At the conclusion of the period, all four patients witnessed reduced symptoms as a result of the medication.

Investigators don't fully understand how CBD is able to offer its therapeutic effects, but they hypothesize it is because of the cannabinoid's anticholinergic activity. While the authors think continued research is still necessary, they do believe CBD provided effective relief for patients, saying, "Four patients treated with CBD had prompt and substantial reduction in the frequency of RBD-related events without side effects...Regarding symptoms after drug discontinuation, RBD complex movements returned with the same frequency and intensity of baseline after the treatment was interrupted." 

This information has been brought to you by Leaf Science and approved by our Chief Medical Officer. 

How Cannabis Treats Parkinson’s disease

Photo Credit: WebMD (http://www.webmd.com/parkinsons-disease/)

Photo Credit: WebMD (http://www.webmd.com/parkinsons-disease/)

Parkinson's Disease is a movement disorder that causes tremors, stiffness, slow movement, and loss of balance. There is no cure for Parkinson's, so current treatment regimens focus on symptom management. Research suggests cannabis may be able to provide therapeutic relief for these symptoms without the harmful side effects. 

One study that can be found in Clinical Neuropharmacology revealed patients who consumed cannabis also reported a significant decrease in tremors, rigidity, and slow movement. Similarly, at the Prague Movement Disorder Centre, half of Parkinson's patients who consumed cannabis reported improvements in their motor symptoms. Another study from the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry revealed THC helps preserve neuronal structure, thereby preventing the neurodegeneration and mitochondrial dysfunction that leads to Parkinson's disease. CBD also has neuroprotective properties, and one study from Toxicology in Vitro showed CBD prevents neuronal cell death by blocking MPP+. Some medications that treat Parkinson's disease increase the levels of dopamine in the brain, which results in something called Dyskinesia and causes abnormal involuntary movements. Now, a study published in Movement Disorders found these symptoms are reduced when the body's cannabinoid receptors are activated.

This information has been adapted from Health MJ and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.  

MMJ for Parkinson's Disease

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder that results in the malfunction and death of nerve cells within the brain. As Parkinson's progresses, it eventually results in body stiffness and slower movements. Symptoms of the disease include tremors, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. Those who suffer Parkinson's disease often also develop depression, cognitive problems, swallowing problems, sleep problems, fatigue, pain, and even psychosis. Studies show cannabis can help slow the progression of Parkinson's and help relieve the disease's symptoms.

Thanks to cannabis' neuroprotective properties, it may have the ability to halt the progression of Parkinson's disease. Cannabinoids suppress excitotoxicity, glial activation, and oxidative injury that cause degeneration of dopamine-relieasing neurons, and they also improve a cell's mitochondrial function, allowing it to clear cellular debris and improve neuron health. THC, specifically, is capable of preventing damage caused by free radicals and has the ability to encourage the formation of new mitochondria by activating specific receptors. CBD also promotes neural cells mitochondrial health, making it therapeutic for neurodegenerative disorders. Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease witnessed improvements in motor disability and impairments, tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, sleep, and pain through the use of inhaling cannabis. One study even found cannabis was able to reduce pain and motor problems in Parkinson's patients within just 30 minutes of use. Lastly, one study found four weeks of CBD use reduced psychotic symptoms in Parkinson's disease patients suffering from psychosis.

This information has been provided by Medical Marijuana Inc. and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.