Marijuana and the Entourage Effect

Photo Credit: MaxPixel

Photo Credit: MaxPixel

Marijuana has a plethora of cannabinoids and terpenes, and while they’re known to have their own unique medicinal benefits when isolated, it’s when they work together that something truly amazing happens. For example, the two most well-known cannabinoids, THC and CBD, work to balance each other, so that CBD can reduce any negative side effects that THC might cause while boosting its positive outcomes. CBD has been show to counteract some of the negatives associated with marijuana, like tachycardia, sedation, intoxication, and other psychoactive effects.

Terpenes, which are the cannabis compounds responsible for the scent and flavor of marijuana, can also play a powerful role in the entourage effect. These chemicals can actually morph how cannabinoids bind to their receptors, and in doing so alter the effects that are produced. On their own, terpenes can affect sedation, pain relief, and provide antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and anti-anxiety effects. When working alongside cannabinoids, however, terpenes could work in tandem to treat acne, MRSA infections, and psychiatric illnesses.

In recent years, pharmaceutical companies have dedicated more time researching the combination of different cannabinoids rather than isolating them, pointing to the powerful effects that whole plant cannabis can offer. It is important to understand what cannabinoid and terpenoid combinations can produce the most effective relief for your symptoms, and our app can help! Remember to document your regimen daily in order to monitor which dose works best. This information has been provided by Leaf Science and approved by our Chief Medical Officer. This post does not represent an endorsement on behalf of Leaf Science.

Study: Marijuana Use Not Linked With Reduced Motivation in Adolescents

Photo Credit: the Daily Chronic

Photo Credit: the Daily Chronic

When considering medical marijuana therapy for their children, parents may be concerned about the side effects marijuana has on adolescent brain development and behaviors. Now, a study conducted by a team of researchers from Florida International University could ease these fears. In the study, which was published in the journal Substance Use & Misuse, researchers looked at the relationship between cannabis use and motivation among 79 adolescent subjects who were either long-term regular cannabis consumers or occasional users. They then looked at motivational tendencies using the Apathy Evaluation Scale and the Motivation and Engagement Scale, and found neither occasional nor heavy marijuana use was linked with a decrease in motivation.

The authors concluded, “After controlling for confounds, no significant differences were observed between regular and light users on any motivation index. Similarly, no associations between motivation and lifetime or past 30-day cannabis use amount were observed… Our findings do not support a link between reduced motivation and CU (cannabis use) among adolescents after controlling for relevant confounds.”

This information is provided by the Daily Chronic and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

Study: Marijuana Use Not Linked With Reduced Motivation

Photo Credit: NORML

Photo Credit: NORML

A new study published in the journal Substance Use & Misuse suggests neither occasional nor heavy marijuana use by adolescents decreases motivation. Researchers from the Florida International University looked at cannabis use and motivation in 79 adolescents who were both long-term regular and occasional users. The investigators looked at motivational tendencies using the Apathy Evaluation Scale and the Motivation and Engagement scale, and found, “After controlling for confounds, no significant differences were observed between regular and light users on any motivation index. Similarly, no associations between motivation and lifetime or past 30-day cannabis use amount were observed… Our findings do not support a link between reduced motivation and CU among adolescents after controlling for relevant confounds.”

This information has been provided by NORML and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

Does Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) Get You High?

Photo Credit: Civilized

Photo Credit: Civilized

Following up on our post discussing the benefits of the cannabinoid THCV, some might want to know how severe its psychoactive effects are. THCV does produce psychoactive and physiological effects, but these effects differ from the effects most people have come to understand produced by THC. Although everyone may experience a different reaction, THCV is generally thought to provide a stimulating, clear-headed buzz as well as mental energy. THCV intensifies the cerebral euphoria caused by THC, which could end up causing anxiety in some users. At the same time, however, THCV may have the ability to counteract the negative effects of THC, like paranoia, impaired short-term memory, and increased heart rate. Unlike THC, the side effects of THCV do not produce increased appetite. Instead, it is an appetite suppressant. The onset of THCV’s psychoactive effects is quicker than that of THC, but it only lasts half as long.

Patients who want to avoid psychoactive effects altogether may want to steer clear of THCV. For those who would like to experience the benefits discussed in the previous post may want to titrate strains containing THCV into their dose, beginning with low doses, so that they can understand how the cannabinoid affects their body. Our app can help, and by journaling daily you can document the experience of your new dosing regimen to monitor what works and what doesn’t, so you can discover optimal relief. This information has been provided by Civilized and approved by our Chief Medical Officer. This post does not represent an endorsement on behalf of Civilized for CannaBest Medical.


What Are the Benefits of Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)?

Photo Credit: Civilized

Photo Credit: Civilized

The cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is a psychoactive and stimulating compound that may offer a wide variety of benefits. THCV may be able to help those with anxiety, especially when it comes to counteracting the mental stress brought on by the cannabinoid THC. THCV has been known to help relieve panic attacks and treat PTSD without affecting emotions. THCV may also promote bone cell growth and bone health, which means it could be beneficial for those suffering from osteoporosis or other similar conditions. Because THCV is an antioxidant, it could provide neuroprotective benefits that would help those with Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. THCV’s ability to suppress the appetite make it ideal for those trying to lose weight, so those trying to stimulate appetite should avoid the strains containing too much THCV. Patients with diabetes may want to find strains with THCV because it regulates blood sugar levels and reduces insulin resistance. Lastly, early research has shown THCV has the potential to improve motor control, reduce tremors, and lessen the damage from brain lesions caused by Alzheimer’s.

This information has been provided by Civilized and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

Study Determines CBD is Effective as Adjunctive Therapy for Psychosis

Photo Credit: The Daily Chronic

Photo Credit: The Daily Chronic

Clinical trial data published in The American Journal of Psychiatry suggests patients who suffer from schizophrenia could manage their psychotic symptoms better through the addition of CBD therapy on a daily basis. In the randomized trial, British researchers compared the addition of 1000 mg of CBD to the addition of placebo in 88 patients’ conventional therapy regimens over the course of six weeks. At the end of the trial, researchers say those who received CBD “had lower levels of positive psychotic symptoms and were more likely to have been rated as improved and as not severely unwell by the treating clinician.” CBD also improved cognitive performance and overall functioning in patients, but these results were not significant statistically. Authors conclude, “These findings suggest that CBD has beneficial effects in patients with schizophrenia… As CBD’s effects do not appear to depend on dopamine receptor antagonism, this agent may represent a new class of treatment for the disorder.”

This information has been provided by the Daily Chronic and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

What Are The Medical Benefits of CBD? - Part 3

Photo Credit: NeedPix (https://bit.ly/2XK0i4H)

Photo Credit: NeedPix (https://bit.ly/2XK0i4H)

Let’s continue our discussion of which conditions could benefit from CBD treatment by beginning with strokes. One animal study found CBD reduced two types of brain damage caused by a stroke, so much so that the outcomes of the group which had the stroke were comparable to the control group that did not. Its neuroprotective properties may help prevent brain damage and help patients heal. When administered before trauma, CBD can also protect against the damage caused by spinal cord injury, and aid in the healing process. Because of its neuroprotective effects, CBD may also be beneficial for those with traumatic brain injury, and studies suggest the cannabinoid protects neurons following injury, reduces the formation of scar tissue, and regenerates neuronal axons. CBD may also treat nicotine addiction, and in one study involving 24 smokers, some smokers received a placebo inhaler while some received a placebo inhaler. Smokers were instructed to use the inhaler when cigarette cravings struck. Those who received the placebo did no reduce their cigarette usage, while those who received CBD reduced their use by 40%.

The medication Sativex, which contains equal parts CBD and THC, has been found to effectively lower scores of spasticity related symptoms in patients with moderate to severe Multiple Sclerosis, even when these patients were previously treatment-resistant. CBD also reduced the production of cytokines, and activated an important biological pathway blocked by multiple sclerosis. Sativex may also help those with ADHD. CBD was also found to improve social interaction and reduce hyperactivity in rats with ADHD. CBD may also promote wakefulness in those who suffer from sleep disorders that cause excessive sleep. CBD also improved the quality of sleep in young patients who suffered from PTSD. CBD may also help patients heal from liver disease. One study found CBD reduces the neurological damage and cognitive impairments caused by toxins that remain in the blood as a result of liver failure. CBD also restored liver and brain function. Lastly, when taken before and after surgery, CBD increased the success rates of bone marrow transplants, and patients who received CBD were less likely to develop graft versus host disease.

This concludes our series examining the many uses for CBD. This information has been provided by Leaf Science and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

What Are The Medical Benefits of CBD? - Part 2

Photo Credit: NeedPix (https://bit.ly/2XK0i4H)

Photo Credit: NeedPix (https://bit.ly/2XK0i4H)

In today’s post, we’ll continue our discussion of which conditions could benefit from CBD treatment.

We’ll begin with Alzheimer’s disease, which scientists believe CBD could treat or even prevent its onset. A 2013 study found CBD prevented the development of amyloid beta plaques, while another study found CBD promoted the growth of new brain cells that were lost to damage caused by the condition, and that it improved symptoms associated with cognitive deficits. The topical application of CBD may treat acne, and studies have found it can reduce inflammation and the production of sebum oil, as well as halt the development of acne. CBD can also help with psoriasis, and studies have found the cannabinoid can prevent the spread of cells that cause the condition’s patches. CBD may also help cancer patients, not only by reducing the nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, but also by preventing the spread of cancer cells and causing cancer cell death. Studies have also found CBD slows the formation of blood vessels within tumors, thereby blocking nutrients from entering the tumor and slowing its growth.

CBD has also been earning a name lately for treating pain and reducing the need for the harmful opiate medications that are traditionally used. Studies have found CBD reduces inflammation and the sensory perception and emotional effects of pain. Research suggests CBD is more effective at treating long-term neuropathic pain than short-term pain. CBD may protect against heart disease, and studies have found the cannabinoid protects cardiac cells when blood supply to the heart is blocked, stops heart arrhythmia, and reduces cardiac damage when oxygen is block. CBD also reduces heart disease from diabetes by reducing inflammation, oxidative stress, scarring, and cell death. The topical application of CBD can target localized areas of pain caused by arthritis. Studies have found CBD blocks pain and prevents nerve damage from osteoarthritis, as well as uses anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects to blog the condition’s progression. Some studies have found CBD may be able to stabilize mood, something that could be helpful for those suffering from Bipolar Disorder. That said, CBD was only effective during depressive stages, and not during manic phases.

That’s not all! Stay tuned for tomorrow’s post to learn more about which conditions CBD could help. This information has been provided by Leaf Science and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

What Are The Medical Benefits of CBD? - Part 1

Photo Credit: NeedPix (https://bit.ly/2XK0i4H)

Photo Credit: NeedPix (https://bit.ly/2XK0i4H)

As legalization proceeds and barriers to medical marijuana research are knocked down, we are becoming more aware of just how powerful wide-reaching medical marijuana is. One of the cannabinoids getting the most attention is cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that can help a myriad of conditions. In this series, we will discuss some of the many conditions CBD can treat.

Numerous studies have suggested CBD can reduce anxious feelings in those with anxiety disorders, and that it can effectively treated a variety of anxiety disorders, including OCD, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, PTSD, and social anxiety disorder. Studies also suggest CBD could benefit those who suffer from depression. Animal studies have shown CBD acts on the serotonin pathways in the brain, allowing it to act as an antidepressant, and one study found CBD reduces anhedonia, which is a symptom of depression that prevents people from feeling joy or happiness. CBD can also stop nausea and vomiting. One study found CBD effectively helped treat nausea in patients who did not get relief from traditional treatments. CBD may also help those with diabetes, and animal studies have found the cannabinoid slows the progression of diabetes and diabetic inflammations, as well as benefit complications associated with diabetes. CBD may also protect against diabetes, and one study found CBD prevented at-risk mice from developing the condition.

Perhaps the most well-known success story for CBD is its ability to treat epilepsy. CBD has acted as an anticonvulsant in animal models, and GW Pharmaceuticals have been testing their CBD oil Epidiolex with success. In the study, 25 and 50 mg/kg a day lowered seizure frequency by half while producing few mild side effects. Additionally, a 2013 survey of parents of children with treatment-resistant epilepsy found 84% reported reduced seizure frequency with CBD use. Lastly, and contrary to previous beliefs, CBD may treat schizophrenia and mental illnesses related to psychosis. It has been found to be as effective as antipsychotics with fewer side effects, and scientists believe this could be attributed to the stimulation of anandamide production. One study found CBD helped with hallucinations, delusions, lack of emotion, and reduced social functioning. CBD can also benefit those with Parkinson’s disease, and various studies have found CBD can help treat the sleep disturbances and psychosis associated with the disorder without worsening motor symptoms and while improving overall quality of life.

This information has been provided by Leaf Science and approved by our Chief Medical Officer. In tomorrow’s post, we will continue to discuss some of the conditions CBD is able to treat.

CBD for Pets

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

Photo Credit: Medical Marijuana Inc.

CBD products are becoming commonplace, not only in health and wellness shops for humans, but also in the market for pet benefits. Because most animals have an endocannabinoid system, it is likely that CBD would be able to interact with your pet’s system in the same way it interacts with ours. This means that CBD may be able to help your pet regulate its immune response, appetite, sleep, metabolism, cardiovascular function, joint health, cellular communication, and neurological and emotional health. The endocannabinoid system is an important part of overall health and wellness, and it allows our bodies to maintain homeostasis, therefore it will help your pet maintain health and balance. Pet owners supplement their pets’ diets by adding nutritional value, like calcium, phosphorous, potassium, and vitamins A, B12, C, and E, which are all provided by full-spectrum CBD derived from hemp plants. Veterinarian Liz Hughston, MEd., RVT, CVT, VTS (SAIM, ECC) explains, “The beauty of CBD is its myriad of uses, including as a natural pain management assistant, and its huge margin of safety, making it a great adjunct to veterinarian-prescribed treatment regiments.”

While CBD is considered safe and well-tolerated, it is important that we treat this like any other medication. Pet owners should be vigilant by tracking how much they are dosing their pets and then monitoring any apparent positive relief or negative side effects. This information has been provided by Medical Marijuana Inc. and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

Cannabinoid Receptor-1 (CB-1) & THC

Photo Credit: High Times

Photo Credit: High Times

We know that the cannabinoids in cannabis are able to produce their therapeutic relief by interacting directly or indirectly with the cannabinoid receptors found within the endocannabinoid system, but how exactly does this work? Well, for the cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the chemical can bind directly the cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB-1). The CB-1 receptor is part of a class of proteins called the g-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are responsible for managing cellular signal transduction to communicate between cells. The proteins are so important, in fact, that they account for 60% of drug targets. The CB-1 receptor is involved in combating varying diseases and abnormalities, including Alzheimer’s, epilepsy, and obesity.

Researchers have recently discovered that their are two types of agonists that bind to and activate the CB-1 receptors, one being very similar in structure to THC. With this information, we will not only be able to better understand how the receptor moves, but also why THC and other cannabinoids are able to produce such positive effects within the body.

This information has been provided by High Times and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

Study: CBD Effective As Adjunctive Therapy For Psychosis

Photo Credit: NORML

Photo Credit: NORML

Contrary to the notion that those who use cannabis may develop psychosis, its cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) may actually help treat psychosis instead. According to a new study published in The American Journal of Psychiatry, the daily use of CBD as an adjunctive therapy can help those who experience psychotic symptoms as a result of schizophrenia. The six-week randomized trial assessed the adjunctive use of 1000mg plant-derived CBD or placebo in 88 patients with schizophrenia daily. Those who received CBD had lower levels of psychotic symptoms and were more likely to have their clinicians report an improvement in wellness at the end of the trial. CBD also produced minor improvements in cognitive performance and overall functioning. Authors concluded, “These findings suggest that CBD has beneficial effects in patients with schizophrenia… As CBD’s effects do not appear to depend on dopamine receptor antagonism, this agent may represent a new class of treatment for the disorder.”

This information has been provided by NORML and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

Marijuana's Effects On Your Bones

Photo Credit: Civilized

Photo Credit: Civilized

A cannabinoid found in marijuana, cannabidiol (CBD), may boost bone health by strengthening bones and supporting bone fracture healing. In a study from Israel, rats with mild fractures in their femurs were separated into groups that either healed naturally, received CBD as a therapy, or received both CBD and THC therapies. Both groups that received CBD healed faster than those who healed naturally. THC did not seem to influence the healing process. Researcher Yankel Gabet explains, "We found that CBD alone makes bones stronger during healing, enhancing the maturation of the collagenous matrix, which provides the basis for new mineralization of bone tissue… After being treated with CBD, the healed bone will be harder to break in the future."

This information has been provided by Civilized and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

The Link Connecting Marijuana and Serotonin - Part 2

Photo Credit: BrainsRusDC (https://bit.ly/3086XCG)

Photo Credit: BrainsRusDC (https://bit.ly/3086XCG)

In our previous post we established the link between Marijuana and serotonin. Now, let’s see what this means in relation to its effects on the body. Researchers suspect the relationship between marijuana and serotonin is what makes it responsible for elevating mood, and benefiting anxiety and depression. Serotonin is an important regulator of mood, emotion, and stress, and when its levels are insufficient, it could cause mental health disorders like anxiety and depression.

One study from 2016 found a drug similar to CBD blocked enzymes that break down endocannabinoids in mice, which resulted in an antidepressant effect. When the mice received a chemical that blocks serotonin, these effects went away, suggesting CBD’s effects on mood may be linked to the serotonergic system. Back in 2006, when the cannabinoid receptor blocker rimonabant was introduced into the market to combat obesity, it was found that these blockers also unintentionally blocked serotonin, thereby causing depression and anxiety in those who took the medication. A study from 2015 also found genetically altered mice who did not have CB1 receptors in their serotonin neurons exhibited increased anxiety. Lastly, a 2011 study found heightened levels of natural cannabinoids increased the efficacy of antidepressants, and that blocking CB1 receptors prevented the antidepressants from working at all.

This concludes our posts on the relationship between serotonin and cannabis, and what this means for us. This information has been provided by Leaf Science and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

The Link Connecting Marijuana and Serotonin - Part 1

Photo Credit: BrainsRusDC (https://bit.ly/3086XCG)

Photo Credit: BrainsRusDC (https://bit.ly/3086XCG)

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter able to regulate various functions like mood, emotion, appetite, and sleep, and it is found within the brain, GI tract, and blood platelets. It may be closely linked to the endocannabinoid system, which may explain why cannabis is able to benefit those suffering from anxiety and depression. Studies have shown cannabinoids can increase the activity levels of serotonin neurons, and cannabis increases the release of serotonin. In 2007, one study found 20% of the serotonin neurons in mice contained cannabinoid receptors, and endocannabinoids like anandamide were found in areas of the brain where serotonin is usually found. Another study from 2004 found THC increased serotonin levels in mice. Additionally, when their CB1 receptors were blocked, serotonin levels decreased. CBD could also indirectly activate serotonin receptors, and researchers suspect many of CBD’s therapeutic effects, like its ability to benefit anxiety, depression, epilepsy, and provide neuroprotection, pain relief, and nausea relief, could be linked to its activation of a subtype of serotonin receptor.

So now that we know the different ways cannabis interacts with serotonin, what does this mean for its effects on the body? You’ll found out in our next post! This information has been provided by Leaf Science and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

Cancer Treatment Providers Accepting of Medical Cannabis Use in Children

Photo Credit: The Daily Chronic

Photo Credit: The Daily Chronic

According to survey data published in the journal Pediatrics, physicians who specialized in pediatric cancer treatment overwhelmingly support the use of medical marijuana as a treatment option. The survey enrolled 288 pediatric oncology providers in Illinois, Massachusetts, and Washington, and 92% of respondents were willing to help children with cancer gain access to medical marijuana. A mere two percent of providers were against all use of medical marijuana in children.

This information has been provided by the Daily Chronic and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

Double-Blind Study Finds CBD Is Effective with Helping Schizophrenia Patients

Photo Credit: Civilized

Photo Credit: Civilized

In a recent double-blind study, researchers determined cannabidiol (CBD) may be able to benefit patients who suffer from schizophrenia. In the study, researchers gave CBD to half of their enrolled volunteers, while they gave the other half placebo. Both groups used these medications in addition to their traditional therapies. Researchers found, "After 6 weeks of treatment, compared with the placebo group, the CBD group had lower levels of positive psychotic symptoms and were more likely to have been rated as improved and as not severely unwell by the treating clinician… Patients who received CBD also showed greater improvements that fell short of statistical significance in cognitive performance and in overall functioning. CBD was well tolerated, and rates of adverse events were similar between the CBD and placebo groups." The researchers also noted that, because CBD does not depend on dopamine receptor antagonism, the cannabinoid could become a new class of treatment of schizophrenia.

This information has be provided by Civilized and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

Marijuana Could Help HIV Patients Maintain Mental Stamina

Photo Credit: High Times

Photo Credit: High Times

A new study published in the journal AIDS suggests THC could help those suffering from HIV maintain mental stamina. Researchers from Michigan State University have determined cannabis’ anti-inflammatory properties could reduce mental deterioration from the virus by about 50% by preventing white blood cells and their proteins from causing damage in the brain. THC could slow or stop the inflammatory process. Researchers studied the blood of 40 HIV patients, both marijuana users and non-users, and found non-users exhibited a much higher rate of inflammation within their white blood cells when isolate. Co-author Norbert Kaminski explains, “The patients who didn’t smoke marijuana had a very high level of inflammatory cells compared to those who did use… In fact, those who used marijuana had levels pretty close to a healthy person not infected with HIV.”

Marijuana could be a beneficial supplemental therapy to the antiretroviral therapies that exist today through its ability to control white blood cells and inflammation. This information has been provided by High Times and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

WHO Report: No Public Health Problems Attributable to CBD

Photo Credit: The World Health Organization | Flickr (https://bit.ly/2RDUQdG)

Photo Credit: The World Health Organization | Flickr (https://bit.ly/2RDUQdG)

According to a report issued by the World Health Organization’s Expert Committee on Drug Dependence, CBD is not only well tolerated and safe, but it has also not been linked to any significant adverse public health effects. They reported CBD is neither associated with abuse potential nor linked to physical dependence on the cannabinoid. The report continues to suggest CBD has been effective as an epilepsy treatment, and could have the potential to treat other conditions like Alzheimer’s, cancer, Parkinson’s disease, and psychosis. They conclude that, although many use CBD outside of medicinal purposes, “[T]here is no evidence of recreational use of CBD or any public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD.”

This information has been provided by the Daily Chronic and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.

CBD for Pain - Part 2

Photo Credit: typographyimages (pixabay.com)

Photo Credit: typographyimages (pixabay.com)

In the previous post, we discussed how Cannabidiol (CBD) could provide safe and effective pain relief Now, Let’s look at some of the conditions for which CBD can reduce pain.

One study from 2007 involving 125 patients found Sativex, an extract containing THC and CBD, significantly reduced pain in patients with allodynia, a rare condition in which non-painful stimulation or touch becomes painful. Sativex was also found to be effective in a 2013 study against cancer-related pain. Another 2014 study found CBD reduced chemotherapy pain without side effects in mice. One study from 2016 found topical CBD was not only effective but that it was also safe in reducing pain and inflammation associated with arthritis, and it produced very few side effects. Many scientific reviews claim CBD can relieve treatment-resistant chronic pain, and one study from 2007 found CBD relieved chronic pain in rats. Many prefer CBD to pharmaceutical medications because it produces much fewer side effects and it has proven well-tolerated. Lastly, CBD may treat the acute and chronic pain associated with multiple sclerosis. One animal study from 2013 found CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties make it a promising pain reliever for those with MS, and another study found administering Sativex to MS patients effectively relieved the neuropathic pain associated with the condition.

This concludes our miniseries on CBD for pain. This information has been provided by Leaf Science and approved by our Chief Medical Officer.